Physics

Types OF Mechanisms With Examples And Characteristics

Mechanisms are the simplest machines and can be linked together in different ways . When analyzed according to the principles of physics and linear algebra, we can develop systems of equations.

The mechanisms can be simple, studied from a two-dimensional approach, or complex, studied through three-dimensional rotations.

What is a mechanism?

They are elements, devices, or sets of solids that have the purpose of transmitting or transforming forces and movements from a driving or motor element to a driven or receiving element. Its purpose is to facilitate certain tasks by being smoke.

A mechanism can also transform an input movement (whether linear, circular or oscillating) into a desirable predictable output pattern, depending on the need to be solved.

Types of mechanism

The mechanisms can be classified according to many variables:

Depending on the number of links they can be:

  • Binaries.
  • Ternaries.
  • Quaternaries.

Depending on their function they can be:

  • Fixed.
  • Drivers.
  • Transducers.
  • Driven.

Depending on the movement they cause, they can be:

  • Fixed.
  • Crank
  • Connecting rod
  • Sliding.

We can also find the following types of mechanisms:

Circular transmission mechanisms

They are those that carry out a movement through a system of pulleys with a belt or through fictional wheels. They can also do it using a train of pulleys with belts, a worm screw, with gears or toothed wheels, which is known as a gear system or gear train.

An example of this is the gearbox of a vehicle and industrial chain systems.

Linear transmission mechanisms

They are mechanisms that move in a straight line and the relationship between the transmission and transformation of forces occurs through a pulley , whether fixed or mobile. The levers found in these mechanisms can be first degree, second degree or third degree, depending on where the support force that causes the transformation is located.

This mechanism is found in fishing rods and wheelbarrows used for construction.

Leading and regulating mechanisms of movement

They are responsible for regulating the movement and its direction using a ratchet and a brake, whether disc, drum or a band brake. You can find this mechanism on the brake of a vehicle.

Mechanisms for transforming circular motion into rectilinear motion

They are those that transform the direction of circular transmission into linear movement . You can find an example of this in the operation of a rack and pinion, a screw and nut, or assemblies such as cranks and lathes.

Mechanisms for transforming circular motion into alternative rectilinear motion

It is the most complex that exists and seeks to alternate the direction of a movement to achieve greater force in the smallest possible space.

An example of this mechanism is the crankshafts in car engines and the cams on the crankshafts.

Coupling mechanisms

They can be fixed or mobile and through the union of two elements the necessary function is carried out. This type of mechanism allows two extremes to achieve a third result through their union. An example of this is the clutch mechanism.

Characteristics of a mechanism

Among the basic characteristics of a mechanism we can mention:

To be considered as such, it must have the following components:

  • Link: It is a rigid element that transmits movement from one place to another. It is necessary for the mechanism to activate.
  • Node: Joins two links together to transmit movement.
  • Joint or kinematic pair: Allows the link and the node to function correctly. It turns the union between the different links into part of a whole.

They are found in most machines, as they all have transmissions and movement transformations.

  • Typically, a motor generates circular motion, which a mechanism converts to linear or reciprocating linear motion.
  • In a mechanism there is a transmission of efforts that produce different conversions.
  • The most common mechanisms are the cardan or universal joint, the rack-and-pinion, worm-crown, clutch, connecting rod-crank, cam and crank with screw and nut mechanisms.
  • The functions of the mechanisms are to transform one speed into another speed, transform one force into another, transform one trajectory into a different one and transform energies.

Examples of mechanism

There is another classification for the mechanisms of which we can give you an example:

Mechanisms used to modify the input force:

  • Rocker.
  • Crank-lathe.
  • Movable or compound pulley.
  • Simple pulley.
  • Hoist.

Mechanisms used to modify speed:

  • Friction wheels.
  • Gears (cogwheels).
  • Pulley system.
  • Chain gear systems.
  • Worm screw-cogwheel.

Mechanisms used to modify movement:

  • Gear crank.
  • Crankshaft-connecting rod.
  • Eccentric.
  • Cam.
  • Rack-pinion.
  • Screw nut.
  • Ratchet.

Other mechanisms:

  • Brakes: Disc, tape and drum.
  • Mechanisms to couple or uncouple shafts: Tooth clutch, friction clutch, Oldham joints and cardam joint.
  • Mechanisms that accumulate energy: Springs and shock absorbers.
  • Mechanisms used for support: Bearings and bearings

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