The dome is an architectural element used to cover a circular, polygonal, elliptical or square space using semicircular, parabolic and ovoid arches. It is a hollow hemispherical structural element and evolved from arches.
Depending on their geometric shape they can be:
- Semi ellipsoid with a circular plan.
- Semi ellipsoid of elliptical plant.
- Semi-paraboloid with a circular plan.
- Semi-paraboloid with elliptical plan.
- Semi hyperboloid with a circular plan.
- Semi hyperboloid with an elliptical plan.
Other types of domes are:
From the Paleolithic Era, it was one of the first dome shapes. They are made up of horizontal layers of masonry that cantilever slightly to meet in the center.
They are those that maintain a polygonal shape in their horizontal cross section. They arc toward the center from a constant point along a wall.
Cross arch dome
It is one of the first types of fluted dome, where its ribs do not meet in the center, but rather intertwine forming polygons to leave an empty space in the center.
Geodesic domes are spherical structures composed of a network of triangles that provide a self-balancing frame. They use minimal materials and were developed by the American engineer and architect Buckminster Fuller.
It is a one-piece structure that rests directly on the base.
They are domes that are characterized by protruding beyond the diameter of their base and tapering into an ogee or S-curve profile.
Their height exceeds their width and they are usually brightly colored or golden in color. They are associated with Russian architecture.
It is that dome whose plane or profile (or both) has an oval shape. In geometry they are defined as the use of combinations of circular arcs that transit through tangential points.
They are also known as “hemispherical domes”, they are half of a sphere built on a circular ring-shaped beam.
They are the largest domes in terms of surface area and the smallest in profile when compared to other dome shapes.
It is also known as “umbrellas” or “parachutes”. They are divided into curved segments that follow the curve of the elevation. Its radial lines act as ribs and extend downwards.
It is unique because its base does not form a circle, but rather its corners support the entire structure and the remaining sides curve upward, adopting the shape of a sail inflated by the wind.