The atom is the smallest unit that makes up matter . There are different types considering the atomic models presented by physics and chemistry scholars.
What is an atom?
It is the minimum unit that makes up matter. Each atom is divided into two fundamental parts, the negatively charged electrons found in a cloud and the positively charged protons found in the nucleus along with the neutrally charged neutrons. The electron cloud orbits the nucleus. The attraction between protons and electrons is what holds the atom together.
When different atoms join together, a molecule is formed.
Types of atoms
The different types of atoms are classified according to the atomic model that represents them:
John Dalton’s atomic model
This scientist was one of the first to formulate an atomic model. In his model he created six postulates, where he distinguished that atoms are indestructible and imperceptible to the eye. He discovered that the atoms of each element are equal to each other and that they have the ability to combine with atoms of different elements to form different compounds.
Thomson’s atomic model
This scientist discovered electrons in 1897. In his model he stated that the electrons were suspended in a cloud with a positive face, dispersed uniformly.
His model described an atom as like a plum pudding, for this reason, this model is known as the “plum pudding atomic model.”
Rutherford atomic model
According to this model, atoms have a nucleus where the mass is found and the positive charge is concentrated, and an external area where the electrons discovered by Thomson are located.
Bohr atomic model
In 1999 he formulated a new atomic model in which he explained that electrons rotate around the nucleus without emanating energy and that they only do so when they transfer from one orbit to another. Electrons move in stable orbits around the nucleus.
Schrödinger’s atomic model
This model is suitable for some atoms, especially hydrogen. He described electrons as waves of matter that decay as they pass the atomic radius.
Sommerfeld atomic model
He took Bohr’s atomic model and improved it by correcting certain lags. He considered that electrons rotate in electrical orbits and postulated that the nucleus does not remain still, but, like electrons, moves around the mass system.