Difference Between

Examples Of Factual Sciences & Characteristics

Factual or factual sciences are those that deal with the factual (from factum, the Latin word for “facts”) or tangible verification of their hypotheses and premises, based on observation and experimentation, that is, the reproduction of a series of conditions to obtain a predictable result.

For this reason, they depend on empirical content that must be able to be confirmed through experience: this verifiability is key to distinguishing them from other sciences.

They are distinguished from formal or pure sciences (such as logic and mathematics) in that they pay more attention to procedures (forms) than to contents (facts). Furthermore, factual sciences use the scientific method for their investigations, while formal sciences use the inductive logical method.

In turn, factual sciences are divided into natural sciences (those that deal with the relationships that exist in the universe and that do not include human intervention) and social sciences (dedicated to the study of the relationships that govern the world of beings). humans).

Examples of factual sciences

  1. Biology , responsible for the study of life in its various variants and possibilities, which encompasses all types of living beings, from bacteria and forms of protozoa , to higher animals, including humans.
  2. Physics , in charge of the study of the laws of nature , in its various variables and possibilities, from applied physics to astrophysics.
  3. Chemistry , whose object of study is the constitution and transformation of matter at its various levels and reactions.
  4. Psychology , in charge of studying the internal functioning mechanisms of the human mind : its constitutive and evolutionary processes, its possible structures, etc.
  5. Social psychology , which studies the way in which the human psyche structures its forms of collectivity and relationships of influence and emotional, symbolic and affective reciprocity.
  6. Sociology , interested in the study of human groups and collectives, or of human society as a whole: its formation processes and its internal struggles, always within the historical-social context in which they are inserted.
  7. Economics , science dedicated to understanding the processes of wealth generation, production, distribution and consumption of goods in human society, either within the framework of the forms of commerce of a country or a specific region or as a whole, in which case it is called Economic Theory.
  8. Political science , also called political science or political theory, makes political activity and its various aspects and formations the subject of its main interest. That includes systems of government , social forms and behaviors around power, and the various possible regimes of human organization.
  9. Sexology , whose specific focus is the anatomical (biological) and cultural study of the sexual behaviors and practices of human beings.
  10. Geology , dedicated to the study of the composition and internal structuring of the Earth, as well as the evolutionary processes that have constituted it throughout geological time. It includes a compendium of geosciences that undertake the review of plate tectonics, as well as planetary geology or astrogeology.
  11. Law , also called Law or Legal Sciences, includes the study of the constitution of the normative and institutional order of the apparatus of human jurisprudence, that is, of the legislative constructions that allow human conflicts to be resolved in a fair, consensual and equitable manner. I also study the historical composition of the different legal regimes, as well as the philosophy that underpins them and the relationships between them.
  12. History , a discipline whose object of study is the past of the human species and whose method is that of the so-called social sciences. There is debate as to whether History is a Social Science or a Humanistic Science, but the most current trends prefer to include it in the first set of disciplines.
  13. Anthropology , understood as the science that studies the human being from a comprehensive perspective, using a combination of tools and knowledge from the various natural and social sciences, seeking to cover both the biological evolution of our species, as well as their ways of life and the varied cultural and linguistic expressions that characterize it in its complexity.
  14. Human geography , responsible for the study of human societies from a spatial perspective, that is, emphasizing the relationship between societies and their physical means of development. Thus, various cultural landscapes and human regions are established, which contribute to the spatial diagnosis of our presence on the planet.
  15. Paleontology , a natural science whose study regime includes the interpretation of the different fossil records, based on methods and foundations closely shared with biology and geology, sister disciplines.

Characteristics Of Factual Sciences

Factual sciences rely on empirical evidence and systematic observation to develop theories and laws, emphasizing objectivity and reproducibility in their methods. They aim to describe and explain natural phenomena using quantitative measurements and rigorous experimentation.

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