Sciences

Difference Between Acids And Bases

Acids And Bases are two types of corrosive substances. A corrosive substance is a substance that will destroy and damage other substances with which it comes into contact. However, even if it seems, there are important differences between acids and bases.

The pH value is the negative logarithm of the H+ ion concentration. pH 7 is considered a neutral pH. pH values ​​above 7 indicate the presence of a base, while values ​​below 7 indicate the presence of acids. According to the Brønsted-Lowry theory, acids can release H+ ions, while bases can accept H+ ions.

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Difference Between Acids And Bases

 

Acid

Acid is understood as those substances that have a pH lower than 7 in their aqueous solution. The presence of an acid medium can be determined by using litmus paper. Acids can turn red litmus blue. However, there is no change in color if the red litmus is used. Compounds that have readily ionizable hydrogen atoms are often acidic.

An acid is a substance that can release protons (H+ ions) into the medium when in an aqueous medium, according to the Brønsted-Lowry theory. When those H+ ions are released, they cannot exist alone in the aqueous medium. Therefore, they combine with water molecules, which form H3O + ions (hydronium ions). This presence of hydronium ions will therefore indicate the presence of an acid.

According to the Arrhenius theory, acid is a substance that can increase the number of hydronium ions in an aqueous medium. This happens thanks to the increase in H + ions. In other words, acids release H+ ions, which interact with water molecules to form hydronium ions.

If the Lewis theory is considered, an acid is a compound that can accept an electron pair from a covalent chemical bond. By this definition, substances that do not have hydrogen atoms are also classified as acids due to their ability to accept electron pairs.

properties of an acid

Acids typically have a bitter taste. The pH of acid will always be less than 7. Almost all acids also have a burning smell. The texture of acids is sticky rather than slippery. Furthermore, they can react with metals, even highly unreactive metals, forming metal hydride and hydrogen gas.

Bases

Substances that show a pH value greater than 7 when in an aqueous solution are called bases. Base in a solution turns the color of red litmus blue. Therefore, the presence of a base can be determined using red litmus. However, when blue litmus is used, there is no color change with a base. Compounds that have easily ionizable hydroxyl groups are often bases.

According to the Brønsted-Lowry theory, a base is a proton acceptor; in other words, a base can accept protons from an aqueous medium. For its part, the Arrhenius theory also gives a similar definition: a base is a substance that decreases the number of hydronium ions present in a medium. The concentration of hydronium ions decreases due to the fact that the base obtains H + ions or protons from the aqueous medium. These ions are necessary for the formation of hydronium ions.

When considering the Lewis theory, a base is a substance that can donate electron pairs. In doing so they form coordinate covalent bonds. According to this theory, most compounds that do not have OH groups are converted to bases.

Properties of a base

The bases have a bitter taste. These substances always show pH values ​​above 7. Almost all bases are odorless, except for ammonia which has a pungent odor. Unlike acids, bases feel slippery and neutralize when they react with acids.

Differences between Acids and Bases

Acids and bases can combine to form water, salt water, and ionic salts. According to this differentiation, acids are good conductors of electricity, since they have H + ions, while bases are not and their texture is more slippery.

One of the differences between acids and bases is that bases contain OH ions. Bases, while dissolving in water, release hydroxide ions, which are one hydrogen atom and one oxygen atom, each with a negative charge. On the other hand, acids only release hydrogen ions.

An acid and a base are of opposite polarities and thus neutralize each other. Acid and bases react with other substances in a caustic manner. Also, when it comes to chemical interaction, acids function as proton donors while bases function as proton acceptors.

Both acids and bases can be classified as weak or strong. In the case of weak acids and bases, the result of the conjugate is strong, but the weak acid or base does not dissociate properly in water. However, strong acids and bases achieve almost complete dissociation in water, even though their conjugate acid or base is weak.

In terms of physical properties, acids have a sour taste and can burn or destroy substances they come into contact with. They leave a stinging effect on the mucous membranes. Bases, on the other hand, taste bitter and have a soapy or slippery texture. This is another one of the differences between acids and bases.

Both acids and bases can be dangerous to the human body if they have a high pH value. The pH value of acid is less than 7 and the pH value of a base is greater than 7. Freshly distilled water has a pH value of 7.

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