Applied Sciences: Definition, Types And Examples

Applied sciences are those that, instead of being satisfied with theoretical reflection and the elaboration of theories, are dedicated to solving practical problems or specific challenges through the use of different scientific knowledge. In that sense, they are opposed to the basic sciences, whose purpose is only to increase the knowledge of humanity. For example: biotechnology, photography, medicine, and engineering.

Applied sciences gave rise to the notion of technology, which is nothing other than the ability to transform reality through tools capable of carrying out practical tasks that humans cannot on their own. It is estimated that technology, both in the Industrial Revolution and in the technological revolution of the late 20th century, has changed man’s way of life more quickly and profoundly than ever.

Types Of Applied Sciences

Applied sciences include engineering, which applies scientific principles to design and create practical solutions, and medicine, which uses scientific knowledge to diagnose, treat, and prevent diseases, enhancing human health and well-being.

Examples of applied sciences

  1. Agronomy . Also called agronomic engineering, it includes a set of scientific knowledge applicable to agriculture ( physics , chemistry, biology, economics , etc.), with the purpose of improving the quality of obtaining and processing food and agricultural products.
  2. Astronautics . Science that explores the theory and practice of navigation outside the confines of our planet, by manned or unmanned vehicles. This includes the manufacturing of ships, the design of the mechanisms to put them into orbit, the sustainability of life in space, etc. It is a complex, varied investigation that takes advantage of different other branches of science in its favor.
  3. Biotechnology . Product of the application of medicine, biochemistry and other sciences to human food and nutrition, biotechnology arises hand in hand with the most recent techniques of genetic manipulation and biological experimentation, to meet the needs of anever-growing world population . How to make more nutritious foods, how to protect them during planting, how to eliminate their side effects and more are the questions to which biotechnology seeks a practical answer.
  4. Health Sciences . Under this common name there is a set of disciplines linked to human health and the preservation of public health, based on the use of chemistry and biology tools, to produce medicines (pharmacology and pharmacy), prophylactic procedures (preventive medicine). and other types of specialties that aim to protect human life and prolong it.
  5. Electricity . One of the applied sciences that most revolutionized the world during the Industrial Revolution was electricity, capable of producing movement, work, light and heat from the management of electrons and their flow. It is considered an applied branch of physics, although many other disciplines are used and intervene in it.
  6. Photography . Although it may not seem like it, photography is a good example of a science applied to a unique purpose: preserving images on paper or in other formats that allow them to be viewed again in the future. In this sense, one of the greatest desires of humanity occurs, which is to preserve things over time, hand in hand with chemistry, physics (especially optics) and recently, computing.
  7. Livestock . The livestock sector also has applied sciences in its development, which study how to improve the feeding and breeding of domesticated animal species, how to prevent their diseases and, together with veterinary science and biochemistry, how to obtain from them a more efficient model of food for man.
  8. Computing . From the complex development of applied mathematics, such as mathematical models and simulations, computer science or computing emerged at the end of the 20th century as one of the main human applied sciences of industrial and commercial importance. This includes computer systems engineering, the study of data processing and artificial intelligence models, to name a few examples.
  9. Lexicography . If linguistics is the study of languages ​​and languages ​​created by man, lexicography is a branch of said science that is applied to the technique of creating dictionaries. It uses language sciences, as well as library science or publishing, but always with the same goal of producing books that allow the meaning of words to be verified.
  10. Metallurgy . The science of metals focuses its attention on the techniques for obtaining and treating metals from their minerals of origin. This includes the different quality controls, possible alloys , production and handling of by-products.
  11. Medicine . Medicine is the first of the applied sciences of man. Taking tools from biology, chemistry and physics, and even mathematics, medicine aims to study the human body and human life from a perspective of improving health, remedying diseases and prolonging life. It is, if you will, the engineering of the human body.
  12. Telecommunications . It is often said that telecommunications revolutionized the world in the late 20th century, and it is true. This discipline applies knowledge of physics, chemistry and numerous engineering to allow the miracle of overcoming distances and communicating at almost immediate speed using a telephone or computer device.
  13. Psychology . The study of the human psyche allows numerous applications to the professional or economic fields of human life, such as clinical psychology (treats mental disorders), social psychology (faces sociological problems), industrial psychology (focuses on the field of of work) and a huge etcetera that makes psychology a useful tool for man to understand himself.
  14. Nanotechnology . This technology uses chemical and physical knowledge of matter , as well as biology and life medicine, to compose industrial, medical or biological solutions to numerous everyday problems at the atomic or molecular level (nanometer scale). Its ideal is the production of remotely controlled microscopic machines, capable of producing or dissolving matter according to specific desired patterns.
  15. Engineering . Engineering is a set of scientific and technological techniques and knowledge that, organized into various branches of interest, allows man to innovate, produce and invent tools that facilitate, protect and improve the quality of life. Mathematics, physics, chemistry and other sciences find their transformation into something practical in engineering.

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